Herpes simplex virus type 1 HSV-1an enveloped DNA virus, plays a key role in varieties of diseases including recurrent cold sores, keratoconjunctivitis, genital herpes and encephalitis in humans.
Great efforts have been made in developing more effective and less side-effects anti-herpes simplex virus agents, including traditional Chinese herbal medicines. In the present study, we evaluated the antiviral efficacy of Rheum tanguticum nanoparticles against HSV-1 in vitro and in vivo. Time-of-addition assay indicated that R.
Moreover, R. In conclusion, we demonstrated that R. These results suggest that R. HSV-1 is an enveloped, linear double-stranded DNA virus which is highly prevalent in most part of the world. Diseases caused by herpes simplex virus include cold sores, keratoconjunctivitis, genital herpes and encephalitis Fatahzadeh and Schwartz, ; Burcea et al.
Treatments currently directed against HSV infections are nucleoside analogs such as acyclovir, valacyclovir, penciclovir, and famciclovir that target viral DNA polymerase Vadlapudi et al. However, extensive use of these drugs has led to clinical problems with the emergence of drug-resistant virus strains, particularly in immunocompromised patients Jiang et al.
The discovery of new drugs to treat HSV infection has become an important goal of drug development. Rhubarb is the rhizomes of plants that belong to the genus Rheum in the family Polygonaceae. Chinese Rhubarb includes Rheum tanguticum R. The rhubarb contains several main chemical compositions such as anthraquinones, anthrones, stilbenes, tannins, polysaccharides, etc.
Cao et al. These compositions show a wide range of pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-tumor, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activities Lai et al. Moreover, anthraquinones derivatives like aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, and chrysophanol, reportedly demonstrated antiviral effects Semple et al. However, as with most Chinese herbal medicines, the application of rhubarb is limited due to its poor bioavailability and hydrophobicity. Therefore, it is necessary to find new ways for the usage of rhubarb in order to make better use of it.
The field of nanotechnology is an advanced approach in modern materials science. Nanoparticles might resolve the biopharmaceutical problems related to improving the uptake of poorly soluble drugs, reducing toxicity and increasing the drug bioavailability Onoue et al. Moreover, it is well documented that the unique properties of nanoparticles, such as small particle size, large surface area to volume ratios, and tunable surface charge, make nanoparticles attractive tools for viral treatment Singh et al.
In recent years, several nanoparticles have been reported for the treatment of viral infections, among them silver nanoparticles have proven to be active against several types of viruses Galdiero et al. Given the importance of antiviral effect of rhubarb and advantages of nanoparticles, we designed some assays to investigate the activity of R.
We first conducted plaque reduction assays using HEp-2 cells to test the capacity of these nanoparticles to inactivate the HSV-1 virions and block the viral attachment and entry into cells, following the evaluation of inhibitory effect on viral replication using real-time quantitative PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence methods.
Furthermore, the in vivo efficacies of these nanoparticles were investigated with a mouse model of HSV-1 encephalitis. The positive results offer a novel promising way for the usage of Chinese herbal medicine to control the HSV-1 infection.
The plant was authenticated by Prof. The dried R. Then these mixed particles were smashed to cell breaking as nanoparticles using the high pressure homogenizer APV, Germany. Finally, the R. The content of main components of R.
The mobile phase composed of A methanol and B 0.Oakland, CA, Nov. There are no current effective therapies for JC virus-induced progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy PML.
Similarly, patients with HSV have limited treatment options. Excision is developing CRISPR-based gene therapies delivered by a single intravenous infusion to cure viral infectious diseases. Excision BioTherapeutics, Inc.
Excision is focused on improving the lives of chronically ill patients by eliminating viral genomes from infected individuals.
For more information, please visit www. In addition, Dr. Khalili is a co-founder, scientific advisor, and has received equity and monetary compensation from Excision BioTherapeutics, a biotech start-up which has licensed the viral gene editing technology from Temple University for commercial development and clinical trials. Subscribe via RSS. Subscribe via ATOM.
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With a Reader Account, it's easy to send email directly to the contact for this release. Sign up today for your free Reader Account! Already have an account? Log in here. Formats available: Original Medium Small. GlobeNewswire is one of the world's largest newswire distribution networks, specializing in the delivery of corporate press releases financial disclosures and multimedia content to the media, investment community, individual investors and the general public.A Swedish research team has discovered a new way to tackle herpes viruses that avoids the development of drug resistance.
Associate Professor Alex Evilevitch and his colleagues at the Virus Biophysics lab at Lund University have found a way to prevent infection from happening by turning off a physical mechanism of the virus. Their findings open up new possibilities for treating other rapidly mutating viruses. Human herpes virus, HSV. Image taken with transmission electron microscopy.
HSV 1, causes or labial HSV 2, causes genital herpes. HSV 3, causes chicken pox and shingles. HSV 6, causes roseola.
Why is there no cure for herpes?
HSV 7, also causes roseola. HSV 8, causes Karposis sarcoma and lymphoma. Developing a new drug to treat a virus takes years. The virus injects its genome into our ganglion cells and remains there for a lifetime.
Most of us will barely notice, but for others there are serious consequences, especially those with compromised immunity. The drugs we use to treat it act on the molecular functions of viruses, involving proteins. Unfortunately for us — and this is where it might start to sound familiar — those proteins mutate.
For many years now, Professor Evilevitch has been researching the mechanical functions of viruses — specifically herpes. And they usually apply across the entire family of viruses. So being able to target those functions is a game-changer.
Genital Herpes Treatment and Care
Resistance becomes a non-issue, and one treatment can have multiple uses. Professor Evilevitch says this way of targeting viruses opens the door to many drug development possibilities. Back inProfessor Evilevitch and his colleagues at UCLA were curious about a controversial idea that was going around regarding the way some viruses infect cells. But there was no experimental evidence. He and his collaborators at UCLA did the experimental work to show that was indeed the case.
The virus DNA in bacteriophages is tightly packed and pressurised in its casing, waiting for the right conditions to inject itself into a host cell with a force many times higher than that of an uncorked champagne bottle. Professor Evilevitch was looking for evidence that this applied to them as well, and in he and his colleagues found it in the herpes virus.
Now, they have gone a step further and actually identified molecules that can turn off this pressure and stop infection from happening. For instance, Coronavirus is not replicated that way.Herpes is an infection that results from either of two types of herpes simplex virus.
The symptoms may appear as oral herpes or genital herpes. Currently, there is no cure. Most people with herpes do not show symptoms, but the infection can also cause painful ulcers and blisters.
Those without symptoms can still pass the infection on to others. Herpes simplex virus 1 HSV-1 typically causes oral herpes, but may also cause genital herpes. People transmit HSV-1 through saliva. Herpes simplex virus 2 HSV-2 is a more common cause of genital herpes.
A person might acquire HSV-2 through sexual contact. Infection with HSV is very common. The World Health Organization WHO estimates that roughly half a billion people are living with genital herpes globally, and several billion with an oral herpes infection.
In this article, we look at why there is no cure for herpes, the progress on developing a cure, and the current treatment options. There is currently no cure or preventive treatment for the herpes infection.
If a person gets either form of herpes virus infection, they will have it for lifewhether or not they experience symptoms. Researchers have conducted several clinical trials investigating vaccines against herpes infection, but there is currently no commercially available vaccine. Herpes is challenging to cure because of the nature of the virus. Experts suggest that even if antiviral drugs destroy the active parts of the infection, it only takes a small amount of the virus to hide in the nerve cells and become dormant for the herpes virus to continue.
To find a treatment, scientists need to understand further the mechanism that enables the infection to hide. By preventing this mechanism, they might be able to tackle the whole infection before parts go dormant. Some medications may reduce the frequency and severity of symptoms and lower the chances of passing the infection on to others.
Current antiviral medications to treat herpes include the following medications :. Acyclovir is typically the first form of treatment for HSV infections. A doctor may treat a skin or mucous membrane infection with oral acyclovir, provided the person has a competent immune system. For people with severe infections or less competent immune systems, the doctor may prescribe intravenous IV acyclovir.
Possible side effects of acyclovir may impact the central nervous system or gastrointestinal tract, which runs from the mouth to the anus. People with high levels of stress or trauma may experience more frequent recurrences of genital herpes.
In this case, a doctor may advise psychotherapy and counseling. Some home remedies, such as petroleum gel or essential oils, may alleviate the discomfort that herpes lesions cause.
Click here to learn more about the best home remedies to treat herpes. A person can transmit HSV-1 when they have no symptoms. However, it is most contagious during an outbreak.Synergy Lifestyle Medicine introduces us to functional medicine
People with active symptoms must avoid oral contact with others or sharing objects that come into contact with saliva. They must also avoid performing oral sex. Those with symptoms of genital herpes must also abstain from sexual activity to prevent the spread of the disease. People with an HSV-2 infection can transmit genital herpes while experiencing no symptoms. HSV-2 is most contagious during an outbreak of sores.
People should abstain from sexual activity while experiencing symptoms.There is no cure for herpes. Antiviral medications can, however, prevent or shorten outbreaks during the period of time the person takes the medication.
In addition, daily suppressive therapy i. Several clinical trials have tested vaccines against genital herpes infection, but there is currently no commercially available vaccine that is protective against genital herpes infection.
One vaccine trial showed efficacy among women whose partners were HSV-2 infected, but only among women who were not infected with HSV No efficacy was observed among men whose partners were HSV-2 infected. A subsequent trial testing the same vaccine showed some protection from genital HSV-1 infection, but no protection from HSV-2 infection. Genital Herpes. Section Navigation.
Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Syndicate. There is no cure for herpes, but medication is available to reduce symptoms and make it less likely that you will spread herpes to a sex partner. STDs Home Page. See Also Pregnancy Reproductive Health. Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website. Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website.
One of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, genital herpes is characterized by tingly, itchy, inflamed, and painful lesions on the skin on and around the genitals and within the vagina, urethra, and anus that resolve and recur intermittently. The infection, caused predominantly by the HSV-2 herpes simplex strain and somewhat less frequently by HSV-1, is incurable, and past attempts to develop both treatments and vaccines have failed. As many as two out of three people permanently harbor HSV-1, and one in five have HSV-2 ; and though only a fraction of individuals experiences observable symptoms, even those without active lesions can pass it on to others.
Long-Awaited Herpes Vaccines Could Be Here Soon
The most recent candidate, created by a team at Louisiana State University, uses a strain of live-attenuated virus that was engineered with disabling mutations in the protein that allows the virus to enter axons.
According to New Scientistlead author Konstantin Kousoulas reports that further, as-of-yet unpublished experiments suggest that the vaccine can also mobilize the immune system in guinea pigs already infected with a pathogenic herpes strain and that the vaccine is safe in non-human primates.
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